WWI was into its sixth (of fifty-one) months of war when these helpful graphics appeared in the pages of the Illustrated London News on Feb 6, 1915. Distinguishing trenches was interesting though not very essential, and certainly not as potentially useful to the broad population as the sheet identifying German aircraft. This image is a version of a poster that was distributed far and wide in Great Britain and France teaching ordinary citizens the differences between airplanes of friend and foe. There were a large number of designs of aircraft,especially so when you threw the British and French planes into the mix. It certainly would’ve been a bit involved at first to make these distinctions, though if your survival depended on perhaps knowing the differences in all of these aircraft then no doubt the learning curve would flatten out. It is also remarkable that all of these developments in aviation come just a dozen years after the Wright brothers first made their powered flight at Kill Devil Hills.
I’ve made a number of posts to this blog on trenches/trench life (findable by entering the search term in the google box at right) and I believe that I’ve not made one regarding Russian trenches, until today. This image (“Russia’s Masterly Underground Defenses”) appears in a news-of-the-world section of Popular Mechanics for July, 1917, and includes a number of very smart smaller cross sections of division of the works. The whole of it is headed by a plan of the works, followed by several smaller works, including the central image which shows the great depth at which the sleep chambers are set. (I also enjoy the bit of free will by the illustrator to include some tiny laundry drying out in the barracks.) Its a lovely work of an uncommon visual.
What we see here, below, is a rather extraordinary flying machine, a mammoth beast with 8,000 square feet of wings (more than 40% greater than that of a 747). It was a triple tandem triplane, which is a glorious-sounding and possibly epic description of the aircraft—a plane with three independent triplanes fixed to one fuselage. The article appears in Popular Mechanics for May 1921, and describes this aeronautical attempt as the work of Giovanni (Gianni) Caproni (1886-1957), which was to be a transport for 300-mile round trip excursions at about 80mph cruising speed. It was powered by 8 12 cylinder 400 hp Liberty engines operating on push/pull arrangements on different wings, carrying a crew of eight and 100 passengers. Unfortunately the flying boat crashed on its second test flight, and then the remains were towed badly toward shore, and that was the end of the plane.
The BBC reports that Queen Elizabeth I translated Tacitus from Latin to English:
A manuscript written by Queen Elizabeth I has been discovered after lying unnoticed for more than a century.The work is a translation of a book in which the Roman historian Tacitus wrote of the benefits of monarchical rule…
He established it was written on a very specific kind of paper, which had “gained special prominence” in the Tudor Court in the 1590s.” There was, however, only one translator at the Tudor court to whom a translation of Tacitus was ascribed by a contemporary, and who was using the same paper in her translations and private correspondence – the queen herself,” added Dr Philo.
A further clue was the presence of three watermarks – a rampant lion and the initials G.B with a crossbow countermark – which are also found on the paper Elizabeth I used in her personal correspondence.
But the clinching argument was the handwriting. The translation was copied by one of her secretaries but it is covered in corrections and additions which match the queen’s highly distinctive, indeed rather messy, hand.
Johnny Morant is a visual artist exploring the complicated relationship between us and our surroundings. At a time when addressing the deteriorating state of our planet is imperative, Johnny’s work explores this strained connection. He creates work that encourages contemplation and awareness of these social and ecological issues.
By embracing a modern day heroic icon; the astronaut, his work considers theories such as the “Overview effect, the experience of seeing firsthand the reality of the Earth in space. From up there, national boundaries vanish, the conflicts that divide people become less important, and the need to create a planetary society with the united will to protect this “pale blue dot” becomes both obvious and imperative.”wiki
One of these days we’ll have a spacecraft on a dedicated mission into the interstellar medium, carrying an instrument package explicitly designed to study what lies beyond the heliosphere. For now, of course, we rely on the Voyagers, both of which move through this realm, with Voyager 1 having exited the heliosphere in August of 2012 and Voyager 2, on a much different trajectory, making the crossing in late 2018. Data from both spacecraft are filling in our knowledge of the heliosheath, where the solar wind is roiled by the interstellar medium.
A new study of this transitional region has just appeared, led by Jamie Rankin (Princeton University), using comparative data from the time when Voyager 2 was still in the heliosheath and Voyager 1 had already moved into interstellar space. Leaving the heliosheath, the pressure of the Sun’s solar wind is affected by particles from other stars, and the magnetic influence of our star effectively ends. What the scientists found is that the combined pressure of plasma, magnetic fields, ions, electrons and cosmic rays is greater than expected at the boundary.
Andrew Saladino aka The Royal Ocean Film Society über die fliegenden Schiffe in den Filmen von Studio Ghibli und die Wunder der Luftfahrt in den Filmen von Hayao Miyazaki.
Ich habe mal eine Luftturbulenz in den Wolken beobachtet, die dürfte zwischen 1 und 10 Meter groß gewesen sein, das ist über den Wolken schlecht einzuschätzen. Die Turbulenz kreiste um ihre Mitte in symmetrisch angeordneten Miniatur-Wirbeln und diese formten ein sich drehendes Gebilde wie Nebel-Derwische in einem sich drehenden Kronleuchter aus Luftwasser. Will sagen, ich versteh’ Herrn Myazaki sehr gut und finde Luftschiffe toll.
The judges ruled it “beyond the expressed purpose of the competition” but noted that “it is quite possible that in the future some of the features considered objectionable today will prove entirely practical.”