Internal guidance module of a Peacekeeper ICBM.
Photograph by Martin Miller, 1986.
Oppenheimer and Feynman are shown above, along with Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves, the Army officer who oversaw the project. Also shown are atomic spies Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall, both of whom supplied information to the USSR.
The “Stronger Than Death” memorial in Semipalatinsk, northern Kazakhstan.
The Semipalatinsk Test Site, about 100km west of the city, was established by Beria in 1947 as a test site for nuclear weapons. Tests were conducted from 1949 and 1989, the number of explosions totalling over 450. Unlike other Russian cold-war era nuclear testing sites, however, the site near Semipalatinsk was in close proximity to human settlements. The area held approximately 200,000 residents, who were not evacuated during the tests.
This sculpture is a memorial to the victims of radiation poisoning from these explosions, the approximate equivalent of 2,500 Hiroshima bombs.
“One rainy night eight years ago, in Watertown, Massachusetts, a man was taking his dog for a walk. On the curb, in front of a neighbor’s house, he spotted a pile of trash: old mattresses, cardboard boxes, a few broken lamps. Amidst the garbage he caught sight of a battered suitcase. He bent down, turned the case on its side and popped the clasps.”
What he found inside the suitcase were seven hundred and one black-and-white photographs depicting scenes of a devastated city.
Lost to the public for over sixty years, the pictures were taken by the “Physical Damage Division”, a special team of 150 men that was part of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey. a group commissioned by Harry Truman to analyse the effectiveness of the United States bombing campaigns in Europe and Asia.